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Introduction

This tutorial will walk you through creating an app in Cerner’s SMART on FHIR ecosystem.

After completing this tutorial you will know how to:

Prerequisites

Project Setup

First, you’ll want to fork this tutorial from smart-on-fhir-tutorial to your GitHub account. The branch you are going to work on is gh-pages.

The smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app folder contains the example SMART app which you’ll be using throughout this tutorial. Let’s take a look at some of the notable files contained within:

fhir-client-[version].js

Located in the lib folder, this is a version of fhir-client.js which is an open source library designed to assist with calling a FHIR API and handling the SMART on FHIR authorization workflow. This tutorial uses this library when walking you through building your first SMART app.

Additional documentation on fhir-client.js can be found here.

launch.html

launch.html is the SMART app’s initial entry point and in a real production environment, would be invoked by the application launching your SMART app (for instance, the EHR or patient portal). In the SMART documentation, this is your app’s “launch URL”. In this tutorial, this page will be invoked when you launch your app from Cerner’s code console.

As the entry point into your SMART app, this page will kick-off the SMART authorization workflow.

launch-patient.html

Similar to the launch.html above, this file is the entry point when launching a standalone patient application. This file was created for convenience factor. In production, you may want to create a separate app for patient facing vs provider facing version of the app. More info on this in Standalone App Launch for Patient Access Workflow section.

launch-smart-sandbox.html

This is a clone of the launch.html above. This file was created for convenience factor to allow you to use the same app to configure it against the SMART Health IT Sandbox. More info on this in Run your app against SMART Health IT Sandbox section.

index.html

This page will be invoked via redirect from the Authorization server at the conclusion of the SMART authorization workflow. When this page is invoked, your SMART app will have everything it needs to run and access the FHIR API.

The other content you see in the folder is the site for this tutorial. We used Slate to create the documentation for this tutorial.

GitHub Pages

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv='X-UA-Compatible' content='IE=edge' />
    <meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html; charset=utf-8' />
    <title>[YOUR-USERNAME] Example-SMART-App</title>
    ...

Go to your GitHub account, select Repositories tab and select smart-on-fhir-tutorial repo. Select Branch button and switch to gh-pages branch if it is not already selected. Directly edit /example-smart-app/index.html by clicking on the pencil icon. Once done with the change, commit directly to gh-pages branch, this will ensure your changes are auto deployed by GitHub.

The SMART app will be available at:

https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/

Health check

https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/health

For the purposes of this tutorial we will be hosting our SMART app through GitHub Pages. GitHub Pages is a convenient way to host static or client rendered web sites.

Setting up GitHub pages is easy, so easy in fact that it’s already done for you. GitHub pages works by hosting content from a gh-pages branch. Since you forked the tutorial, the gh-pages branch has already been created, however GitHub won’t publish your site until you make a change to the gh-pages branch, so let’s make a change. Modify the index.html page to include your GitHub user-name in the title, and commit directly to gh-pages branch.

Use GitHub UI to directly edit index.html. Simply switch the branch to gh-pages, navigate to /example-smart-app/index.html and click the pencil icon. Commit your changes to deploy.

Once the app has been redeployed go to https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/health to ensure your app is available.

Registration

Now that we have a deployed SMART app, let’s register it to access Cerner’s FHIR resources. We have created a self registration console to allow any developer to be able to run a SMART app against our development environment. Navigate to our code console, if you don’t have a Cerner Care Account, go ahead and sign up for one (it’s free!). Once logged into the console, click on the “+ New App” button in the top right toolbar and fill in the following details:

Field Description
App Name My amazing SMART app Any name will do.
SMART Launch URI https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/launch.html
Redirect URI https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/
App Type Provider Provider facing app
FHIR Spec dstu2 The latest spec version supported by Cerner.
Authorized Yes Authorized App will go through secured OAuth 2 login.
Standard Scopes These scopes are required to launch the SMART app.
User Scopes None
Patient Scopes Locate the Patient Scopes table and select the Patient read and Observation read scopes.

Specifying user scopes or patient scopes will result in a slightly different testing workflow. See this section: Test your App. More information about Patient-specific scopes vs. User-level scopes can be found in this spec.

Click “Register” to complete the process. This will add the app to your account and create a client id for app authorization.

The new OAuth 2 client id will be displayed in a banner at the top of the page and can be viewed at any time by clicking on the application icon to view more details.

App Launch

Provider App

We have now created our own SMART app and registered that app with Cerner to access the FHIR resources. Before we continue on with the next steps, let’s take a moment to talk about the flow of a SMART app launch.

The SMART app launch flow begins with the EHR. Through some method, a user has indicated that they wish to launch a smart application. The EHR redirects to the SMART Launch URI that was registered above.

In this example Launch URI is launch.html. launch.html redirects to the FHIR authorization server which in-turn redirects to the Redirect URI, index.html, upon a successful authentication.

Post-authentication, index.html exchanges the returned authorization token for an access token and is then able to request resources from the FHIR server. Let’s take a deeper look at launch.html and get it ready for authentication. For more information about the SMART app launching vist the SMART Health IT site.

alt text

EHR App Launch Flow - Full size image here

Patient App

Unlike the EHR app launch flow above, a standalone app does not need to be launched by an EHR or a patient portal. Cerner currently supports the special “launch/patient” scope that can be used during a standalone launch to request that the user must select a patient during authorization. However, this scope is currently only supported for patient launches. If you do a standalone launch for provider, your application will be responsible for presenting a patient search in order for a provider to select a patient’s chart. You can learn more about the standalone launch at SMART Health IT site.

There are a few minor differences:

More information on how to configure a patient standalone app can be found in Standalone App Launch for Patient Access Workflow section below.

alt text

Patient App Launch Flow - Full size image here

Request Authorization

launch.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge" />
    <title>Example-SMART-App</title>
  </head>
  Loading...
  <body>
    <script src='./lib/fhir-client-v0.1.11.js'></script>
    <!-- Prevent session bleed caused by single threaded embedded browser and sessionStorage API -->
    <!-- https://github.com/cerner/fhir-client-cerner-additions -->
    <script src='./lib/fhir-client-cerner-additions-1.0.0.js'></script>
    <script>
      FHIR.oauth2.authorize({
        'client_id': '<enter your client id here>',
        'scope':  'patient/Patient.read patient/Observation.read launch online_access openid profile'
      });
    </script>
  </body>
</html>

Make sure to replace CLIENT_ID with the client id provided in code console and redeploy your site.

The responsibility of launch.html is to redirect to the appropriate FHIR authorization server. As you can see in the code, fhir-client makes our job pretty easy. All we have to do is call FHIR.oauth2.authorize and supply the client_id generated by the code console during registration and the scopes we registered.

The client_id is found in the app details page that can be accessed by clicking on the application icon in the code console. Copy the client_id into the authorize call in launch.html, commit the changes back to your repo and redeploy your site.

For the purposed of this tutorial you don’t need to modify the scopes. This list should match the scopes that you registered the application with.

Below is some additional information about the scopes we’ve selected for our app.

Scope Grants
patient/Patient.read Permission to read Patient resource for the current patient.
patient/Observation.read Permission to read Observation resource for the current patient.
openid, profile Permission to retrieve information about the current logged-in user. Required for EHR launch.
launch Permission to obtain launch context when app is launched from an EHR. Required for EHR launch.
launch/patient Permission to have a patient be selected when performing a standalone launch. Currently supported only for Patient standalone launch. Required for a standalone launch if the application attempts to use patient/* type SMART scopes. For example, if an app uses only user/Patient.read or user/Observation.read scopes it wouldn’t use launch/patient scope. See this section: Standalone App Launch for Patient Access Workflow.
online_access Request a refresh_token that can be used to obtain a new access token to replace an expired one, and that will be usable for as long as the end-user remains online. Required for EHR launch.

For our app we will use Patient.read, Observation.read. We will always include launch, online_access, openid & profile scopes to our app.

So just what exactly is the FHIR.oauth2.authorize method doing?

Through an EHR launch, launch.html will be supplied with two query params iss and launch

iss is the EHR’s FHIR end point and launch is an identifier that will be passed along to the authorization server.

FHIR.oauth2.authorize queries the FHIR endpoint to find the URI for authorization. It then simply redirects to that endpoint, filling out the required API which includes the supplied client_id, scopes and the launch parameter passed in from the EHR. (There are a few more params that can be read about here). Additionally the function generates an appropriate state parameter that will then be checked after redirecting to the index page.

Following the FHIR.oauth2.authorize, the app will redirect to the authorization server, which, on a successful authorization, will redirect back to the Redirect URI, in this case, index.html

Access Token Retrieval

index.html

...
<script src='./lib/es6-shim-0.35.1.min.js'></script>
<script src='./src/js/example-smart-app.js'></script>
<script src='./lib/fhir-client-v0.1.11.js'></script>

<!-- Prevent session bleed caused by single threaded embedded browser and sessionStorage API -->
<!-- https://github.com/cerner/fhir-client-cerner-additions -->
<script src='./lib/fhir-client-cerner-additions-1.0.0.js'></script>
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.12.4/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script>
  extractData().then(
    //Display Patient Demographics and Observations if extractData was success
    function(p) {
      drawVisualization(p);
    },

    //Display 'Failed to call FHIR Service' if extractData failed
    function() {
      $('#errors').html('<p> Failed to call FHIR Service </p>');
    }
  );
</script>
...

example-smart-app.js - extractData

...
window.extractData = function() {
    var ret = $.Deferred();
    ...
    ...
    FHIR.oauth2.ready(onReady, onError);
    return ret.promise();
  };

Now that the app has successfully been authenticated, it’s time to call a FHIR resource, but first we need to obtain an OAuth2 access token. We have an authorization code that was passed as a query param to the redirect URI (index.html) by the authorization server. The authorization code is exchanged for an access token through POST to the authorization server. Again, fhir-client.js makes this easy for us.

The index.html file includes a script which calls into the extractData function in example-smart-app.js.

extractData uses the FHIR.oauth2.ready() function to exchange the authorization code for the access token and stores it in session storage for later use.

Access FHIR Resource

example-smart-app.js - onReady

...
function onReady(smart)  {
  if (smart.hasOwnProperty('patient')) {
    var patient = smart.patient;
    var pt = patient.read();
    var obv = smart.patient.api.fetchAll({
                  type: 'Observation',
                  query: {
                    code: {
                      $or: ['http://loinc.org|8302-2', 'http://loinc.org|8462-4',
                            'http://loinc.org|8480-6', 'http://loinc.org|2085-9',
                            'http://loinc.org|2089-1', 'http://loinc.org|55284-4']
                          }
                         }
                });

    $.when(pt, obv).fail(onError);

    $.when(pt, obv).done(function(patient, obv) {
      var byCodes = smart.byCodes(obv, 'code');
      var gender = patient.gender;
      var dob = new Date(patient.birthDate);
      var day = dob.getDate();
      var monthIndex = dob.getMonth() + 1;
      var year = dob.getFullYear();

      var dobStr = monthIndex + '/' + day + '/' + year;
      var fname = '';
      var lname = '';

      if(typeof patient.name[0] !== 'undefined') {
        fname = patient.name[0].given.join(' ');
        lname = patient.name[0].family.join(' ');
      }

      var height = byCodes('8302-2');
      var systolicbp = getBloodPressureValue(byCodes('55284-4'),'8480-6');
      var diastolicbp = getBloodPressureValue(byCodes('55284-4'),'8462-4');
      var hdl = byCodes('2085-9');
      var ldl = byCodes('2089-1');

      var p = defaultPatient();
      p.birthdate = dobStr;
      p.gender = gender;
      p.fname = fname;
      p.lname = lname;
      p.age = parseInt(calculateAge(dob));

      if(typeof height[0] != 'undefined' && typeof height[0].valueQuantity.value != 'undefined' && typeof height[0].valueQuantity.unit != 'undefined') {
        p.height = height[0].valueQuantity.value + ' ' + height[0].valueQuantity.unit;
      }

      if(typeof systolicbp != 'undefined')  {
        p.systolicbp = systolicbp;
      }

      if(typeof diastolicbp != 'undefined') {
        p.diastolicbp = diastolicbp;
      }

      if(typeof hdl[0] != 'undefined' && typeof hdl[0].valueQuantity.value != 'undefined' && typeof hdl[0].valueQuantity.unit != 'undefined') {
        p.hdl = hdl[0].valueQuantity.value + ' ' + hdl[0].valueQuantity.unit;
      }

      if(typeof ldl[0] != 'undefined' && typeof ldl[0].valueQuantity.value != 'undefined' && typeof ldl[0].valueQuantity.unit != 'undefined') {
        p.ldl = ldl[0].valueQuantity.value + ' ' + ldl[0].valueQuantity.unit;
      }
      ret.resolve(p);
    });
  } else {
    onError();
  }
}
...

With access token in hand we’re ready to request a FHIR resource and again, we will be using fhir-client-[version].js.

For the purposes of this tutorial we’ll be retrieving basic information about the patient and a couple of basic observations to display.

The fhir-client-[version].js library defines several useful API’s we can use to retrieve this information.

Both of these functions will return a jQuery deferred object which we unpack on success.

Unpacking is fairly straight forward. We’re taking the response from the patient and observation resources and placing it into a “patient” data structure.

The last function from fhir-client-[version].js is the byCodes utility function that returns a function to search a given resource for specific codes returned from that response.

The fhir-client-[version].js library defines several more API’s that will come in handy while developing smart app. Read about them here.

Displaying the Resource

index.html

...
<h2>SMART on FHIR Starter App</h2>
<div id='errors'>
</div>
<div id="loading">Loading...</div>
<div id='holder' >
  <h2>Patient Resource</h2>
  <table>
    <tr>
      <th>First Name:</th>
      <td id='fname'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Last Name:</th>
      <td id='lname'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Gender:</th>
      <td id='gender'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Date of Birth:</th>
      <td id='birthdate'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Age:</th>
      <td id='age'></td>
    </tr>
  </table>
  <h2>Observation Resource</h2>
  <table>
    <tr>
      <th>Height:</th>
      <td id='height'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Systolic Blood Pressure:</th>
      <td id='systolicbp'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Diastolic Blood Pressure:</th>
      <td id='diastolicbp'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>LDL:</th>
      <td id='ldl'></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>HDL:</th>
      <td id='hdl'></td>
    </tr>
  </table>
</div>
...

example-smart-app.js - drawVisualization

...
window.drawVisualization = function(p) {
  $('#holder').show();
  $('#loading').hide();
  $('#fname').html(p.fname);
  $('#lname').html(p.lname);
  $('#gender').html(p.gender);
  $('#birthdate').html(p.birthdate);
  $('#age').html(p.age);
  $('#height').html(p.height);
  $('#systolicbp').html(p.systolicbp);
  $('#diastolicbp').html(p.diastolicbp);
  $('#ldl').html(p.ldl);
  $('#hdl').html(p.hdl);
};
...

The last remaining task for our application is displaying the resource information we’ve retrieved. In index.html we define a table with several id place holders. On a success from extractData we’ll call drawVisualization which will show the table div as well as filling out the relevant sections.

Test your App

To re-deploy the GitHub Pages site, commit your changes and make sure your gh-pages branch is up to date.

Now that we have a snazzy SMART app, it’s time to test it.

MPages® Integration

MPages® is a Web-based platform that enables clients to create customized views of Cerner Millennium® data at the organizer or chart level from within Cerner PowerChart®, FirstNet®, INet® and SurgiNet®.

There are a few different files and HTML tags you need to add to each view within your application to securely embed the SMART App within an MPage® view.

index.html - launch.html - health.html

<html lang="en"  hidden>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv='X-UA-Compatible' content='IE=edge' />
    ...
    <link rel='stylesheet' type='text/css' href='./lib/css/cerner-smart-embeddable-lib-[version].min.css'>
    ...
  <body>
    ...
    <script src='https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/babel-polyfill/6.26.0/polyfill.min.js'></script>
    <script src='./lib/js/cerner-smart-embeddable-lib-[version].min.js'></script>
    ...

Note: The steps above only ensure that the application will meet certain prerequisites to securely embed a SMART app within an MPage® view. Once these relevant files and HTML tags are included inside each view of the app, then the application should be ready for SMART in MPage® integration.

Run your app against SMART Health IT

One of the reasons why SMART on FHIR is awesome is because of the interoperability factor! If an EHR follows the SMART and FHIR specifications, your application will work with that EHR’s SMART on FHIR implemenmtation. Let’s see if the app that you’ve built will work with SMART Launcher. The following steps will walk you through setting up your app at SMART Health IT site.

launch-smart-sandbox.html

...
<!-- Currently, the SMART App Launcher (https://launch.smarthealthit.org) does not check/validate the client_id field.
        If/when this changes, or when working with other authorization servers, please update the client_id field here. -->
<script>
  FHIR.oauth2.authorize({
    'client_id': 'YOUR-SMART-HEALTH-IT-CLIENT-ID-HERE',
    'scope':  'patient/Patient.read patient/Observation.read launch online_access openid profile'
  });
</script>
...

Standalone App Launch for Patient Access Workflow

SMART supports EHR launch and standalone launch. With a standalone launch, SMART provides a scope that allows the application to request that the user chooses a patient during authorization (launch/patient). Cerner currently only supports the launch/patient scope for patient access workflow, a practitioner access application would need to provide the patient search itself during a standalone launch. The standalone application does not need to be launched by an EHR or a patient portal. The app can launch and access FHIR data on its own, provided the app is authorized and given or configured with the iss (FHIR server root) URL.

You can find out more about standalone launch on the SMART Health IT site under the “Standalone launch sequence” header.

Since patient access is specifically for patient workflow, we need to create another app in code console. Below, you can follow the instruction to perform this registration.

Registration

Navigate to our code console. Once logged in, click on the “+ New App” button in the top right toolbar and fill in the following details:

Field Description
App Name My amazing SMART Patient App Any name will do.
SMART Launch URI Leave this field blank since this is a standalone patient app.
Redirect URI https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/
App Type Patient Patient facing app
FHIR Spec dstu2 The latest spec version supported by Cerner.
Authorized Yes Authorized App will go through secured OAuth 2 login.
Standard Scopes These scopes are required to launch the SMART patient app.
User Scopes None
Patient Scopes Locate the Patient Scopes table and select the Patient read and Observation read scopes.

Click “Register” to complete the process. This will add the app to your account and create a client id for app authorization.

The new OAuth 2 client id will be displayed in a banner at the top of the page and can be viewed at any time by clicking on the application icon to view more details.

Request Authorization

The launch-patient.html file had been created for you already. You’ll need to update the client id with the new one you’ve just gotten. This file shows what your app will use to request authorization with the Authorization server.

launch-patient.html

  <script>
    FHIR.oauth2.authorize({
      'client_id': '<enter your client id here>',
      'scope':  'patient/Patient.read patient/Observation.read launch/patient online_access openid profile'
    });
  </script>

Make sure to replace CLIENT_ID with the new client id provided in code console. Notice that launch/patient is used here instead of launch. This is because during our standalone launch we want the authorization server to prompt the user to select a patient, in order to be able to use the patient/Patient.read and patient/Observation.read scopes above, which require a patient in context.

Finally, save launch-patient.html file in gh-pages branch.

Launch a Standalone App

Cerner’s Sandbox Patient Access Endpoint:

https://fhir-myrecord.cerner.com/dstu2/ec2458f2-1e24-41c8-b71b-0e701af7583d

The iss value in the query parameter represents the URL for our Sandbox Patient Access endpoint. This value tells the app where to look for the metadata endpoint, which contains the authorization endpoints that the app needs to call.

Launch URL:

  https://<gh-username>.github.io/smart-on-fhir-tutorial/example-smart-app/launch-patient.html?iss=https://fhir-myrecord.cerner.com/dstu2/ec2458f2-1e24-41c8-b71b-0e701af7583d

Since this app is a standalone app, it does not need to be launched by the EHR or patient portal (code console).

Replace <gh-username> with your GitHub’s username. Then, enter the URL above into the browser, the browser should redirect to the login page. You can use patients’ credentials listed in the first post in this discussion.

Once you authenticated and authorized the app, the app should load with Patient and Observation data.

Next Steps

Through this tutorial we have:

We’ve created a very basic application that meets the base requirements of being a SMART app. This application would require a fair amount of polish before being ready to be deployed in a production environment. A couple of next steps you could look at are:

We’re excited to see what you’ll build next!